WHO has declared that AMR is one of the top 10 global public health threats facing humanity. Misuse and overuse of antimicrobials are the main drivers in the development of drug-resistant pathogens. – Avoid Antibiotics
AMR (antimicrobial resistance genes) is a leading cause of death around the world, with the highest burdens in low-resource settings. Understanding the burden of AMR and the leading pathogen–drug combinations contributing to it is crucial to making informed and location-specific policy decisions, particularly about infection prevention and control programs, access to essential antibiotics, and research and development of new vaccines and antibiotics. Data gaps in many low-income groups especially in India and China, emphasizing the need to expand microbiology laboratory capacity and data collection systems to improve our understanding of this important human health threat. 
Human deaths were caused by drug-resistant infections. Antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) — mobile genetic elements that can pass between micro-organisms — help to accelerate resistance.
More than 1.2 million deaths (disability-adjusted life-years – DALYs) attributable to and associated with bacterial AMR for 23 pathogens and 88 pathogens – drug combinations in 204 countries and territories in 2019.
Two Indian Origin Lead Reasercher Lead by Dr. Poonam Dhindwal PhD and a Post-Doctoral Fellow and her team from Western College of Veterinary Medicine (WCVM) said the presence of gene which encodes for Enzyme named EstZ is capable of inactivating macrolides. (The team of researchers include Poonam Dhindwal, Richa Jain and Charis Thompson Antonio Ruzzini Daniel KosKoa Murray Jelinski from University of Saskatchewan (USask) research team of WCVM.) 
Its already known that presence of this gene in animal pathogens but its functions unknown. But the gene was found in the cluster of three other ARGs. Further analysis of this gene against different classes of antibiotic drugs led to discovery against macrolides.
Macrolides are class of antibiotic drugs (Tylosin, tilmicosin and tildipirosin are some antibiotics) used by Veterinary Doctors for respiratory illnesses such as bovine respiratory disease and liver abscesses and few other diseases.
Now, veterinarians may also understand why these drugs may not be working because of presence of the gene.
The discovery after analyzing bacteria collected from watering bowls at a western Canadian beef cattle feedlot. What the USask research team discovered is that this gene can break the ring structure of the antibiotic through hydrolysis (chemical reaction caused by water). The researchers said the gene breaks the Drugs ring and corrupts the active shape of the drug.
Further research is needed on the effects of Human beings and other animals about EstT, from the same team well entrenched under the “Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (GAP)”
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